Biotechnology plays an important role in maintaining the safety of the food supply. The development of reliable methods to ensure the traceability of genetic material in the food chain is of great value to food manufacturers and consumers. Consumer confidence in food biotechnology will increase if better traceability methods are in place.
Modern biotechnology tools are also applied to develop sensitive, reliable, fast, and cheap methods for detection of harmful pathogenic organisms such as E. coli O157:H7 and the infectious agent for mad cow disease. TRANSGENE DETECTION Accomplishments in food biotechnology require continuous development of new products and their successful commercialization through consumer acceptance.
One of the greatest demands made by consumer groups as a prerequisite for their support of transgenic plant use, is the development of reliable methods of detection of the transgene in human food products (James 2001). But as the number of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) approvedinformation such as the name of the company, production date, place of production, product model, and serial number.
The variable region where the information is encoded will be cloned between conserved sequences that contain primer-binding domains. To read the DNA-encoded information, one only needs to perform PCR and sequence the fragment. Another PCR-based method for GMO detection involves the use of unique genomic sequences flanking the transgene.
Hernandez et al. (2003), working with Monsanto’s transgenic maize line MON810, which contains a gene encoding for the insecticide CryIA(b) endotoxin, identified a genomic sequence adjacent to the 3-integration site of the transgenic plant by using a thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR approach. PCR amplification of target DNA and real-time PCR product quantification are the two most used techniques for accurate DNA quantification.
Real-time quantitative PCR can be used with different quantitative tools such as DNAbinding dyes (Morrison et al. 1998), fluorescent oligonucleotides (Whitcombe et al. 1999), molecular beacons (Tyagi and Kramer 1996), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) probes (Wittwer et al. 1997), and TaqMan probes (Heid et al. 1996). The main advantage of the TaqMan system is that it is highly specific because it uses three oligonucleotides in the PCR reaction